Is telomerase a viable target in cancer?
Is telomerase a viable target in cancer?
Telomerase is considered an almost universal target for human cancers since telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance is the mechanism employed by a vast majority of cancer cells to enable limitless proliferation.
Why is telomerase an active target in cancer research?
Cancer cells often avoid senescence or cell death by maintaining their telomeres despite repeated cell divisions. This is possible because the cancer cells activate an enzyme called telomerase, which adds genetic units onto the telomeres to prevent them from shortening to the point of causing senescence or cell death.
How can telomerase be targeted as a cancer treatment?
Approaches to targeting telomerase include: (1) Immunotherapies—peptide or DNA vaccines supply immunogenic TERT epitopes that stimulate immune responses against telomerase-expressing cancer cells. Adoptive cell transfer therapies entail the infusion of telomerase-specific cytotoxic T cells.
Do Normal cells have telomerase?
Since first discovered in Tetrahymena thermophila in 1985 (82), telomerase activity was found to be absent in most normal human somatic cells but present in over 90% of cancerous cells and in vitro-immortalized cells (124, 210).
How does telomerase cause cancer?
Therefore, molecular mechanisms that regulate hTERT expression and telomerase assembly have been subjected to intense investigation. Studies using telomerase inhibition strategies have established that robust hTERT inhibition can lead to progressive telomere shortening and eventually cancer cell death.
Are cancer cells immortal?
Cancer cells have been described as immortal because, unlike normal cells, they don’t age and die, but instead can continue to multiply without end.
Is telomerase more active in cancer cells?
Telomerase is commonly expressed in human cancer cells. Increased telomerase expression produces vulnerability of cancer cells, distinguishing them from normal cells in the body, although normal cells do also have some active telomerase.
Why are cancer cells immortal?
With each cell division, telomeres shorten until eventually they become too short to protect the chromosomes and the cell dies. Cancers become immortal by reversing the normal telomere shortening process and instead lengthen their telomeres.
Why is telomerase active in germ cells?
Presence of telomerase activity in the male germ cells ensures maintenance of telomere length at maximum levels during spermatogenesis despite telomere attrition due to DNA replication or other genotoxic factors.
Is telomerase present in all human cells?
All human somatic cells and almost all human cell lines transcribe and accumulate hTR, generating telomerase RNP. However, the distribution of catalytically active telomerase holoenzyme is much more restricted.
Are telomeres the key to aging and cancer?
Telomeres affect how our cells age. Once they lose a certain number of bases and become too short, the cell can no longer divide and be replicated. This inactivity or senescence leads to cell death (apoptosis) and the shortening of telomeres is associated with aging, cancer and an increased likelihood of death.
Can a cell live forever?
Over time, the telomeres get shorter and shorter until eventually they’re no longer there at all, and the cell stops dividing and may eventually die. It does make your cells live forever, but only in the form of cancer. Unfortunately, we currently lack the cellular mechanisms to harness telomerase for good purposes.
What kind of cancer is associated with POT1 mutations?
Gene variation of pot1 Exon14 is associated with endometrial cancer POT1 mutations cause telomere dysfunction and is associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
What are mutations in POT1 that cause telomere dysfunction?
POT1 mutations cause telomere dysfunction and is associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The POT1 stimulates the binding and enzymatic activities of the LP-BER proteins APE1, FEN1 and LigI both individually and when they act together in reconstituted LP-BER using a telomeric substrate.
What is the level of POT1 in cervical cancer?
POT1 was identified at 70 kDa in biopsy tissue of cervical cancer patients and its level was higher than that in normal cervical smears; the high level of POT1 in the biopsy tissue of cervical cancer patients showed the influence of this shelterin component in cervical carcinogenesis and also cell immortalization
How is TMPyP4 used to down regulate POT1?
TMPyP4 (meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine) has been widely used as G-quadruplex binding ligand, which stabilized the G-quadruplex in vitro and in cellulo, resulting in down-regulation of pot1 gene transcription.
Is telomerase a viable target in cancer? Telomerase is considered an almost universal target for human cancers since telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance is the mechanism employed by a vast majority of cancer cells to enable limitless proliferation. Why is telomerase an active target in cancer research? Cancer cells often avoid senescence or cell death by maintaining…